You need to know, understand and skilfully use these words to be able to do well in Paper 3 of your exam; the field work paper
|Primary data collection||Information you have collected yourself|
|Secondary data collection||Information someone else collected|
|Qualitative data||Information that is NOT expressed as numbers or numerical data, eg as present or absent, feelings, or as colours.|
|Quantitative data||Information that is expressed in numbers|
|Spatial sampling||Either points along a line (linear of line sampling) or using a quadrat|
|Random Sampling||Where every person or place has an equal chance of being measured. Decisions are made using random number tables|
|Stratified sampling||Dividing sampling into groups, eg three sites from each section of coastline, or five people from each age range. It is possible to combine stratified sampling with random or systematic sampling|
|Systematic sampling||Collecting data in an ordered or regular way, eg every 5 metres or every fifth person.|
|Opportunistic sampling||Where you make decisions in the field or on the day based on the conditions you find there|
|Accuracy of data collection||Ensuring all data is collected correctly|
|Reliability of data collection||Ensuring all data is collected consistently|
1/ What are the differences between the last two key words?
2/ What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of sampling technique? A recent 6 mark exam question was “Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of systematic sampling for collecting pedestrian flows.” So to help revise you could replace “systematic” with any of the other sampling strategies from the table and practice that as a 6 mark question.